Vitamins, Minerals, Deficiencies
by meetmaria

Glutamine Benefits and its functions    17 y  
Glutamine serves as a reservoir of nitrogen in tissues. Glutamine takes part in the process of detoxication in which phenylacetic acid, the toxic substance of the body is excreted with the formation of phenyl acetyl glutamine.
Biosynthesis of glutamine from glutamate is catalyzed by glutamine synthesis, and enzyme present in high quantities in renal tissue. This reaction is similar and different to that of glutamate dehydrogenase. Both fix inorganic nitrogen-but one into amino and other into amide linkage. Both are exergonic reactions-glutamine synthetase the hydrolysis of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), and glutamate dehydrogenase the oxidation of NAD (P) H (Nicotanamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). As the ammonia is constantly produced in the tissues, so is removed from the circulation by the liver and con ...   read more

Iron sources and daily requirements    17 y  
Iron is very vital for our proper health and fitness. It is found in abundant in green and leafy vegetables.
Iron is of great importance in human nutrition for healthy blood and vitality. Though it is considered as a trace element, it is responsible for oxygen transport and cellular respiration. Iron is found in the body 1) as iron porphyrins in haemoglobin, myoglobin 2) as iron enzymes in catalase, cytochrome and peroxidases. 3) as non-iron porphyrins in transferring, ferritin and haemosiderin. The iron content of the body is controlled by its absorption and not by excretion. The total daily iron loss of an adult is less than 1 mg. During menstruation, the average loss is furthe ...   read more

Phosphorus Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources    17 y  
Phosphorus is essential for the formation of sounds bones, strong teeth, and healthy blood. It plays an important part in all metabolisms.
Phosphorus: An adult human body contains about 400-700 gm of phosphorous as phosphates, most of this occurs in bones and teeth. About two-thirds of it is found in chemical combination with calcium in the bones and teeth, and the rest in other tissues. The excess of iron, aluminum and magnesium can impede and block storage of phosphorus, making it ineffective. The retention of phosphorous depends on various factors like amount and form of phosphorus ingested, calcium content, and vitamin D intake. The kidneys are the major routes of excretion for absorbed phosphorus builds up in excess in ...   read more

PABA Benefits, Deficiency and Sources   17 y  
PABA is essential for the growth of micro-organisms. It prevents the bacteriostatic properties of the drug since it has similar chemical structure as that of sulphonamides.
PABA Benefits: It is essential for the growth of micro-organisms. It prevents the bacteriostatic properties of the drug since it has similar chemical structure as that of sulphonamides. It forms a portion of folic acid. Its role in human nutrition is not definitely known. It is found effective in combination with Inositol and Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B-5) to check premature hair greying, and changing back to black colour of the hair. There are many other benefits of PABA. Dietary Sources: It is found in wheat germ, rice bran and polishing, milk, and in animal tissues. Defici ...   read more

Important Amino Acid - Tryptophan    17 y  
Tryptophan has several important roles in proper functioning of our health.
Tryptophan is an amino-indolepropionic acid. It is essential and should not be omitted in the diet. It’s not synthesized in the body, but may be synthesized in the micro-organism, E.coli. It is neither ketogenic nor glycogenic. Though this amino acid is very essential for the body, yet it is inefficiently utilized in the body, and a large amount of tryptophan is excreted in urine. The amino acids being colourless do not absorb visible light and ultraviolet light of a wavelength above 240 mm. The exception being aromatic amino acids which includes histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine ...   read more

Arginine Benefits and its functions    17 y  
Arginine vasopression is suggested in treatment of antidiuretic hormone deficiency. It is available in plenty in dry yeast, human milk, cheese, pork, grapes, banana, water melon seeds, piyal seeds, cucumber, cauliflower, tapioca, radish, cabbage, pumpkin leaves, peas, lentil rice and wheat.
Arginine is an amino guanidovaleric acid and an essential amino acid. This amino acid though synthesized in the body, but the quantity it too little to meet the demand of the body at the growing period. It is thus considered essential and got added in this category. Sources of Arginine: It is available in plenty in dry yeast, human milk, cheese, pork, grapes, banana, water melon seeds, piyal seeds, cucumber, cauliflower, tapioca, radish, cabbage, pumpkin leaves, peas, lentil rice and wheat. There is no scientific conclusion of RDA for arginine at present. However up to 2 gm is give ...   read more

Essential Amino Acid: Phenylalanine & Valine   17 y  
Amino acids are very vital for our proper health and fitness.
Phenylalanine : The phenylalanine is an essential amino acid. It is not synthesized in the body but in the micro-organism it is synthesized where one molecule of D-erythrose-4 phosphate and two molecules of phosphot-enolpyruvic acid are required. Metabolic breakdown of phenylalanine lead to formation of tyrosine, phenyl acetic acid, phenyl lactic acid, and tissue protein in separate reactions. The phenylalanine gets first converted to tyrosine by phenylalanine hydroxylase. One of the major hereditary metabolic disorder called phenylketonuria impairs this conversion is hyperpheylalaninemi ...   read more

Useful Amino Acid for Health: Tyrosine    17 y  
Amino acids are very benificial for proper functioning of our body
The tyrosine is an aromatic amino acid, which can absorb light. It is formed form phenylalanine by the reaction catalyzed by phenylalanine hydroxylase. The phenylalanine is essential amino acid but tyrosine is not, provided the diet contains adequate quantities of phenylalanine. The reaction is not reversible, so tyrosine cannot replace the requirement for phenylalanine. Tyrosine has to sparing action, because if tyrosine is fed then need to phenylalanine in the body is decreased. Both the amino acids are ketogenic and at the same glycogenic. Both have immense metabolic role in the body, a ...   read more

Vitamin A Deficiency, Prevention and Treatment    17 y  
Vitamin A is very essential for our proper growth and fitness.
Deficiency: The signs of vitamin A deficiency are predominantly ocular. They include night blindness, conjunctival xerosis, Bitot’s spots, corneal xerosis and keratomalacia. The term ‘xerophthalmia” (dry eye) comprises all the ocular manifestations of Vitamin A deficiency ranging from nightblinddness to keratomalacia. Given belows in a short description of the ocular manifestations. (a) Night blindness: Lack of vitamin A first causes night blindness or inability to see in dim light. The mother herself can detect this condition when her child cannot see in late evenings ...   read more

Useful Amino Acids    17 y  
Amino acids play a vital role in proper functioning of the body.
Leucine: It is an essential amino acid and is not synthesized. It is amino-isocaproic acid. This may be synthesized by the micro-organism from ketoisovaleric acid and acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA is convertible to ketone bodies and thus the leucine is ketogenic amino acid. It gives energy in combination will isoleucine and valine. It regulates protein metabolism. It is found in plenty in bajra, jowar, wheat, Bengal gram, black gram, field bean, soyabean, drumstick leaves, spinach, colocasia, radish, sweet potato, bitter gourd, cauliflower, almond, gingelly seeds, pistachio, walnut, apple, ...   read more

Amino Acids- Proline & Threonine    17 y  
Amino Acids plays an important role in the proper functioning of our body. Its essential for everyone to know Amino Acid benefits and uses.
Proline: It is non-essential amino acid. It is one of the important parts of collagen, which binds and supports the cells. It promotes healing of wounds and effectiveness gets enhanced in combination with vitamin C. Proline is pyrolidine carboxylic acid. Proline and hydroxyproline are cyclic compounds do not possess free amino group, but react like a amino acid. They are non-essential glycogenic and formed in the body form glutamic acid and ornithine. Proline is formed glutamate by reversal of the reactions of praline is oxidized to glutamate and transminated to ketoglutarate. Tw ...   read more

Vitamin C- Ascorbic Acid Benefits, Deficiency and Sources    17 y  
Vitamin C is important for our healthy life. Amla or the Indian gooseberry is one of the richest sources of vitamin C both in the fresh as well as in the dry condition. Guavas are another cheap but rich sources of this vitamin.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin. It is the most sensitive of all vitamins to heat. Man, monkey and guinea pig are perhaps the only species known to require vitamin C in their diet. Sources: The main dietary sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables. Traces of vitamin C occur in fresh meat and fish but scarcely any in cereals, Germinating pulses contain good amounts. Roots and tubers contain small amounts. Amla or the Indian gooseberry is one of the richest sources of vitamin C both in the fresh as well as in the dry condition. Guavas are anothe ...   read more

Iron functions and deficiency    17 y  
Iron is very essential to our body. One should have knowledge of importance of Iron, its sources and its deficiencies.
Functions on the Body: Iron is generally absorbed from the whole of the gastro intestinal tract but most of it comes from the upper part of the small intestine mainly the duodenum. Dietary Iron is absorbed through the mucosal cells in ferrous form. Iron in diet is present in ferric state which is reduced to ferrous during absorption, with the help of Vitamin C, glutathione and amino acid –SH groups. After entering the mucosal cell in ferrous form, the iron molecules are soon reconverted into ferric state, which combine with a protein, apoferritin of the mucosal cells to form ferritin ...   read more

Benefits of Vitamin E and Vitamin K   17 y  
Vitamins are essential for the proper growth of our body.
Vitamin E (Tocoferol): Vitamin E is the generic name for a group of closely related and naturally occurring fat-soluble compounds, the tocopherols. Of these, alpha-tocopherol is biologically the most potent. Sources: Vitamin E is widely distributed in foods. By far the richest sources are vegetable oils, cotton seed, sunflower seed, egg yolk and butter. Foods rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids are also rich in vitamin E. Daily requirements: The usual plasma level of vitamin E in adults is between 0.8 and 1.4 mg per 100 ml (37). While there is no doubt that man requires tocopherol i ...   read more

Amino acid- Benefits and its functions    17 y  
Amino acids are very important for proper funtioning of our body.
The amino acid is an organic acid in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by NH2 group. It is one of the organic compounds, which represent the end product of the protein breakdown. All proteins are made up of amino acids. An amino acid contains a carbon atom, a free among group (containing nitrogen-NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH). Amino acids are amphoteric in reaction and form salts with both acids and bases. The amino acids in the body are derivatives of saturated fatty acids. Amino acids are colourless, crystalline substance, soluble in water, easily diffusible and (except gl ...   read more

Benefits of essential amino acids    17 y  
Lysine is an essential amino acid and it eliminates virus infection in combination with zinc, and vitamin A & C. Vitamin C makes lysine more powerful in controlling virus effects. The deficiency can cause poor appetite, weight loss, anaemia, low concentration, and cold ailments. It promotes recovery in herpes.
Methionine: Methionine, cysteine, and cystine are the sulphur containing amino acids of the body. All are glycogenic. Methionine is essential amino acid, whereas the cysteine and cystine are not. Methionine is amino-methyl-thiobutyric acid. This is to be given in diet, or can be substituted with its corresponding keto acids, which cannot be synthesized in the body but on amination gives rise to methionine. The methionine can be synthesized in the micro-organism by methylating the homocysteine. Three amino acids methionine, arginine, and glycine are directly involved in synthesis of creti ...   read more

Copper Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources    17 y  
Copper is required for absorption of iron. It is good for the bones, and regulates sugar. Tiny amounts of copper are necessary for the formation of hemoglobin.
The first evidence to show copper as an essential element for the formation of hemoglobin was studied by E.B. Hart in 1928. Dietary Sources: Copper is found in fresh and dried fruit, green and leafy vegetables. It is available in liver, kidney, shellfish, and dried legumes. Milk is poor in copper. Copper is widely distributed in nature. Soft water has more copper than the reservoir water. Even poor diets provide enough for human needs. Functions in the Body: It is required for absorption of iron. It is good for the bones, and regulates sugar. Tiny amounts of copper are necessary fo ...   read more

Sodium Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources    17 y  
Sodium is necessary for digestion, and elimination of carbon dioxide. The sodium in plasma provides over 90% of the total base of the body. Sodium occurs in many foods like milk and vegetables, and is added as common salts during cooking. It is present in whole meal flour, bread, celery, bananas, water, milk, lotus, dry stem, pulses, and legumes, green and leafy vegetables; beetroot, fruits, fish and meat, and all ordinary articles of diet.
Sodium and potassium are another pair of minerals that complement each other’s action of the body function, and are concerned with water balance, and is essential for life. The sodium is chiefly found in extra cellular fluids and very little inside the cells. This is in reverse order as compared to potassium, which is mainly found inside the cells, and very little in the extra cellular fluids. The total sodium in a body is equal to 0.1% of body weight, i.e. about 100 mg and is present in all body fluids. Its spread is: as Sodium -340 mg % in plasma, 65 mg % in corpuscles, 200 mg % in whol ...   read more

Vitamin A Sources and Functions in the body   17 y  
Vitamin A is necesaary for proper growth, maintains the integrity and the normal functioning of glandular and epithelial tissue which lines intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts as well as the skin and eyes and protect against some epithelial cancers such as bronchial cancers.
Vitamin A covers a pre-formed, retinol, and a pro-vitamin, beta-carotene, some of which is converted to retinol in the intestinal mucosa. Sources of Vitamin A: Vitamin A is widely distributed in animal and plant foods –in animal foods is preformed vitamin A (retinol), and in plant foods are pro-vitamins (carotenes). (a) Animal Foods: Foods rich in retinol area liver, eggs, butter, cheese, whole milk, fish and meat. Fish liver oils are the richest natural sources of retinol, but they are generally used as nutritional supplements rather than as food sources. (b) Plant foods: The che ...   read more

Iodine Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources   17 y  
Iodine is very essential for proper health. It's deficiency can cause several problems like mental retardation, enlarged thyroid gland, defective speech and many other serious effects.
Iodine was discovered in burnt sea weed in 1811 by B. Courtois, and isolated in 1819 by Fyfe. It was fond in 1896 by E. Baumann that the thyroid gland was very rich in Iodine when compared with the other tissues. Iodine was one of the first minerals recognized as vital for good health. Iodine is am important trace element for healthy thyroid gland, which kills harmful germs, makes up it own hormone (thyroxin) and rebuilds energy. It is required for the synthesis of the thyroxin hormones-thyroxin and triodothyronine. It is present in the secretions of thyroid gland. Iodine is grayish ...   read more


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