Even Jesus, whom you respect and admire greatly, used scripture in debates and teaching. It is true that He did not have the New Testament, but He sure did have the Old Testament. It was not canonized at the time, but it was considered scripture. Even Jesus considered these books to be scripture.
Canonization was not about a group of men getting together and deciding which books would be in our Bible as some preach in order to bring the Bible down. Enemies of the word of God use this line to bring confusion to people. Canonization was about putting a Bible together with the books that the early church already knew was scripture. Yes, there were heretical books that did not make it. The early Christians knew they were heretical.