Oxidizers work based on a CT value. C stands for concentration. T stands for time. When encountering a pathogen you need a concentration high enough to kill the pathogen and you need it to remain in contact with the pathogen long enough to kill it.
In general, the higher the concentration the shorter the amount of time needed to kill the pathogen. The problem with high concentrations is that it can kill more than just the target pathogen you are going after.
The body does a great job of this. When a pathogen invades the body the white blood cells engulf the pathogen. This isolates it from the body. Then an oxidizer is produced to kill the pathogen. Since the area inside the blood cell is small only a small concentration is needed. Since everything is isolated from everything else the time can be extended to accommodate the lower concentration of oxidizer used.
CDS is chlorine dioxide in water. To find the Science behind this look at water purification and hard non porous surface disinfection. With the body look at topical applications such as wound care, ear infections, and as a mouthwash. The problem with chlorine dioxide in the body is that there is too much other stuff that chlorine dioxide reacts with so it quickly (within seconds) looses its concentration and becomes ineffective.
An example of this is when a chlorine dioxide solution is used for embalming a dead body. Once the body is dead you don't have to worry about damaging internal organs. You want a concentration that doesn't damage the surface skin but don't worry about everything else. A concentration of around 500 PPM will prevent decomposition for about 5 days with the body kept at room temperature. When the 5 days is up, the chlorine dioxide is used up and the body decomposes.
As far as how long does it take goes, it depends...
Water treatment if filtered first takes about 15 minutes. If unfiltered it takes 4 hours or longer. Hard non porous surface disinfecting takes 30 seconds to 5 minutes. Building decontamination takes about 24 hours. Vehicle decontamination takes about 8 hours.
The body has a lot going on. This makes everything much more complex.