This is a very interesting article mentioning the antifungal activity of Jujube Honey against candida albicans.
One particular observation is how this honey is able to disrupt mature candida biofilms.
Biofilms are probably the cause of many treatment failure since most antifungals are unable to disrupt them.
Effect of Jujube Honey on
Growth and Bioﬁlm Formation
Mohammad Javed Ansari,
Noori S. Al-Waili,
and Yehya Al-Attal
Chair of Engineer Abdullah Ahmad Bugshan for Bee Research, Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences,King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Department of Biochemistry, D.K.M. College for Women, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India
Al-Waili Foundation for Science, Queens, New York, USA
Received for publication December 15, 2012; accepted June 19, 2013 (ARCMED-D-12-00176).
Background and Aims. Candida
, are major fungalpathogens of humans that are capable of causing superﬁcial mucosal infections and sys-temic infections in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the jujube (
) honey for its
inhibitory activity against pre-formed bioﬁlm andits interference with the bioﬁlm formation of
C. albicans. Methods.
The XTT reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomicforce microscopy (AFM) were employed to determine the inhibitory effect of Jujubehoney on
bioﬁlm. Changes in the infrared spectrum after treatment withhoney were also determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Jujube honey affects bioﬁlms by decreasing the size of mature bioﬁlms and bydisruption of their structure. At a concentration of 40% w/v, it interferes with formationof
bioﬁlms and disrupts established bioﬁlms. The SEM and AFM resultsindicated that this type of honey affected the cellular morphology of
anddecreased bioﬁlm thickness.
The present ﬁndings show that jujube honey has antifungal propertiesagainst
and has the ability to inhibit the formation of
bioﬁlmsand disrupt established bioﬁlms.
2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc.
, Bioﬁlm, Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic forcemicroscopy.
Mucosal biofilms of Candida albicans.
Ganguly S1, Mitchell AP.
Biofilms are microbial communities that form on surfaces and are embedded in an extracellular matrix. C. albicans forms pathogenic mucosal biofilms that are evoked by changes in host immunity or mucosal ecology. Mucosal surfaces are inhabited by many microbial species; hence these biofilms are polymicrobial. Several recent studies have applied paradigms of biofilm analysis to study mucosal C. albicans infections. These studies reveal that the Bcr1 transcription factor is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm formation under diverse conditions, though the most relevant Bcr1 target genes can vary with the biofilm niche. An important determinant of mucosal biofilm formation is the interaction with host defenses. Finally, studies of interactions between bacterial species and C. albicans provide insight into the communication mechanisms that endow polymicrobial biofilms with unique properties.
Candida albicans biofilm inhibition by synergistic action of terpenes and fluconazole.
Pemmaraju SC, Pruthi PA, Prasad R, Pruthi V.
The current treatment options for Candida albicans biofilm-device related infections are very scarce due to their intrinsic increased tolerance to antimycotics. The aim of this work was to study synergistic action of terpenes (eugenol, menthol and thymol) with fluconazole (FLA) on C. albicans biofilm inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assayed using CLSI M27-A3 broth micro-dilution method showed antifungal activity against C. albicans MTCC 227 at a concentration of 0.12 % (v/v) for both thymol and eugenol as compared to 0.25 % (v/v) for menthol. FLA was taken as positive control. The effect of these terpenes on metabolic activity of preformed C. albicans biofilm cells was evaluated using 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay in 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate. Thymol and eugenol were more effective at lower concentrations of > or = 1.0 % (v/v) than menthol. Synergistic studies using checkerboard micro-dilution assay showed fractional inhibitory concentration index (sigma FIC = 0.31) between thymol/FLA followed by eugenol/FLA (sigma FIC = 0.37) and menthol/FLA (sigma FIC < 0.5) against pre-formed C. albicans biofilms. Thymol with fluconazole showed highest synergy in reduction of biofilm formation than eugenol and menthol which was not observed when their activities were observed independently. Adherence assay showed 30% viability of C. albicans cells after 2 h of treatment with 0.05 % (v/v) thymol/FLA. Effect of thymol/FLA on C. albicans adhesion visualized by SEM micrographs showed disruption in number of candidal cells and alteration in structural design of C. albicans. Thus, the study demonstrated synergistic effect of terpenes with fluconazole on C. albicans biofilm, which could be future medications for biofilm infections.